wine is made from grapes, there are more than a thousand variety grapes and not all of them are used in the production of wine.
The colour, flavour, and aroma of the wine are largely influenced by the types of grapes used in the production. There are five main types of wine in which grapes are used.
In this guide, we have listed the most popular types of grapes used in the production of wine.
Different types of white grapes list used in wine
Chardonnay is a green-skinned grape variety, which is basically used in the production of white wine. This grape was first produced in Burgundy’s eastern wine region of France.
Chardonnay wine tends to be a medium to light body with noticeable acidity and flavours of green plum, apple, and pear. Its flavours become more citrus, peach, and melon, in warm locations.
Regions: Champagne in the northeast of France, Burgundy, eastern region of France.
2. Sauvignon blanc
Sauvignon blanc is also a green-skinned grape variety, that originates from the Bordeaux region of France. it is a refreshing dry wine that has a great minerality, aromas and tastes of herbs and grasses and a nice crisp.
Some most famous dessert wines from Sauternes and Barsac are made from Sauvignon blanc. The flavour can range from aggressively grassy to sweetly tropical.
Region: France, New Zealand, California, Chile, Italy, South Africa, Bordeaux, Loire Valley
Riesling is a white grape variety, that originated from the Rhine region. It is high acidity and is used to make dry, medium, and white sparkling wine.
Riesling is fruit-driven aromatic white that comes in variable sweetness. some produce choose not to ferment all the sugar in grapes, therefore, making the wine in an off-dry style.
Regions: Germany, Hungary, Luxembourg, France, Austria, Slovakia, Croatia, Italy, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa, United States, Canada
Also Read: What is a fortified wine, type, service
4. Chenin Blanc
Regions: Loire valley, France
5. Pinot Gris
Pinot Gris or Pinot Grigio are a white wine grape variety of the species Vitis vinifera. It is mostly famous for its refreshing citrus flavour and zesty acidity.
Pinot Gris has basically fruit flavours like lime, lemon, pear, white nectarine and apple. Depending on where the grapes are grown,
Regions: Alsace in France, northern Italy, Baden in Germany.
Trebbiano is an Italian white grape variety, it is mostly used in brandy and balsamic vinegar production. Its high acidity makes it important in Cognac and Armagnac productions.
Muscat is a white grape that offers over 200 varieties ranging in colour from white to yellow. Variations of the Muscat family includes variations in style, from dry white wines to fortified examples, sparkling Muscats and sweet wines.
Regions: Alsace, southern Rhone, and Midi In France, southern Portugal, most of Italy, Greece Crete
Muller-Thurgau is a white wine grape variety, It was created by Hermann Müller from the Swiss Canton of Thurgau in 1882 at the Geisenheim Grape Breeding Institute in Germany.
Regions: Geisenheim Grape Breeding Institute, Germany
Read some more white grapes below
Region: Alto Adige in Italy, Austria
Regions: France, especially in cognac, California
13. Folle Blanche
Regions: France especially cognac, Armagnac, Loire, and California
14. Johannesburg Riesling
Regions: Germany-mainly Rhine and Mosel, France-in-Alsace the Jura; central Europe.
Regions: California, Mediterranean; known as Malmsey in Madeira
Regions: Mainly in Australia, South Africa, and some in France
Regions: France, is also known as melon de Bourgogne
Regions: Spain for sherry, also known as Listan Palomino
19. Pedro Ximenes
Regions: Australia, Calfornia, South Africa, Spain for sherry
20. Pinot Blanc
Regions: Burgundy, Alsace Germany
21. Pinot Gris
Regions: France-mainly Alsace, Germany, Switzerland, northern Italy
Regions: Central Europe- mainly Germany; France
23. Ugni Blanc,
Regions: France, mainly cognac and Armagnac, where it is known as saint Emilion
Read Also: What is a fortified wine, type, service
Different types of red grapes list used in wine
1. Cabernet Sauvignon
This is a black grape of remarkable quality. It is considered to be the best in the world and is used in the production of the most prestigious chateaux wines of Medoc of the Bordeaux region of France. The colour of the skin is blue-black and is coated with dusty bloom.
The flavour resembles black currant, blackberry, and hints of resins, spices, mint. this type of grape produces wine with high tannin content which needs slow ageing in the oak cask.
Regions: Australia. The United States, Chile, and Argentina
2. Pinot noir
It is a classic grape variety of Burgundy and champagne. It produces all the great red wines of Burgundy. It is one of the three permitted varieties of grapes used in champagne making to give structure to the wine.
Pinot noir grape produces light coloured, light tannin, and delicately flavoured wine with floral, herbal, strawberry, raspberry, cherry brandy aromas
Regions: United stare, New Zealand, and Italy used this variety.
It is an early ripening red variety from the Pomerol district of Bordeaux. Merlot is sensitive to frost and fungi and is frequently blended with cabernet sauvignon to produce excellent wines, especially in Pomerol and St. Emilion.
Merlot grape has low tannin and acid levels and produces softer, smoother, and fruitier wines with cherry plum, red currant flavours
Regions: The United state cultivates this variety.
4. Syrah (Shiraz)
It is the main grape of northern Cotes du Rhone, producing Cote Rotie, Hermitage, St. Joseph, and Coronas. Syrah produces deep-coloured, astringent red wine aromas of violet, pepper, blackberry, and blueberry. This type of grape has a powerful tannin which allows the wine to mature gracefully
Regions: Italy, Australia, and the United States.
Read Also: Dom Perignon vintage champagne wine
Barbera is an Italian red grape variety, it is known for its deep colour, full-body, low tannins and high levels of acidity.
Barbera has fruit flavours such as dark cherry, dried strawberry, Plum, Blackberry, vanilla, nutmeg, and anise.
Regions: Italy in piedmont, South America, California
Brunello is a red wine grape variety that produced some of the best, high-quality wines that have become symbols of Italian oenology. It is grown in the Montalcino area and derives its name from the brown colour the local variant possesses.
Regions: Italy in Tuscany
7. Cabernet Franc
Cabernet Franc is one of the major black grape varieties worldwide, parent grape of cabernet sauvignon and merlot, aromas of raspberry, bramble, and bell pepper
Regions: France in Loire and Bordeaux, Italy, California
Gamay is a purple-coloured grape variety, grown in Beaujolais and in the Loire Valley around Tours. Gamay-based wines are typically light-bodied and fruity, similar in taste to Pinot Noir.
Regions: France in Beaujolais and Loire, Switzerland, California
Regions: France mainly south and southern Rhone, California, Spain
Regions: Itlay in Emillia, Romagna
Regions: France, Argentina, California
Regions: France in champagne. It is also called Pinot Meunier
Regions: Italy in piedmont and Lombardy, California
Regions: Itlay in Tuscany and Emilia, Romagna
Regions: Spain in Rioja, Argentina
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