10 Basic types of cooking methods

There are three basic cooking methods, dry heat cooking method, medium of fat or oil, and medium of liquids or moist heat cooking method.

All the cooking techniques come under these three cooking methods, let us look at the infographic below to better understand.
cooking methods
Dry heat cooking method
In this cooking method foods are cooked without the presence of water, fat, or oil, it only relies on the circulation of hot air

1. Broiling


It is cooking by direct heat, it could be done by the source of heat above or below. It is dry cooking and can be done on an iron bar or pan, where the food is cooked uncovered. The pan or bar is oiled slightly to prevent sticking.

Example: Broiled peanut, Broiled Bacon-Basted Salmon with Mushroom-Oyster Sauce

2. Baking


Baking is a method of cooking food by the action of dry heat in an oven. The degree of dryness of heat may be modified by the amount of steam produced from the item baked.

Examples: Bread rolls, cakes, pastries, pudding, potatoes, and vegetables are baked.

Medium of fat or oil

This cooking method is done with different types of fat or oil.

3. Roasting


The term roasting was originally applied to the cooking of large pieces of meat on an open fire.

There are four types of roasting methods are there

A) Pot roasting

It is done in a covered pot or pan, only good-quality meats, small joints, and birds are used. The meat is tied with foil to retain its shape, it is placed in the pot, and skewers, are placed at the bottom to prevent the meat from sticking to the pan. Fat should cover the bottom of the pan, cover the pot with a lid, and cook on slow fire.

B) Oven roasting

Oven roasting is done in a roasting tray in an oven with the aid of fat. First-class meat, poultry, and vegetables are used. It is put in hot fat, and all sides are browned to seal the juices. After 15 minutes aromatic vegetables should be added for flavoring.

C) Spit-roasting

In this cooking technique, food is cooked by dried heat, and basted with fat. First-class quality meat is used and meat should be juicy. For this cooking technique, the fuel should be wood.

D) Tandoor roasting

This cooking technique is done in a clay oven. The heat comes below to above, the fire should be either coal, charcoal, or gas. We can prepare vegetables, fish, meat, poultry, and Indian bread with this technique.

Examples: Roasted chicken, Roasted duck, Roasted beef.

4. Grilling


Grilling is a cooking method where the food is placed on a griller bar on heat which could be from below or above.

The source of heat may be charcoal, gas, or electricity.

If the source of heat is from above the grilling equipment is called Salamander

We can also grill the food on a hot plate with a high flame, The plate is known as a griddle,  usually, small items are grilled on a griddle.

French grilling terms

SL. English French Percentage
1. Rare (very underdone) Aubleu 40%-45%
2. Underdone Saignant 50%-60%
3. Just done A-point 70%-80%
4. Well cooked Bien Cuit 90%-100%

5. Frying


Food is fried when it is placed or immersed in oil or fat at high temperature, used to brown the surface at least. There are mainly two types of frying methods.

A) Deep frying

Deep frying is a cooking method in which food is submerged in hot fat, traditionally lard but today most commonly oil, as opposed to the shallow oil used in.

B) Shallow frying

Shallow frying is a hot oil-based cooking technique. It is typically used to prepare portion-sized cuts of meat, fish, potatoes, and patties such as fritters.

Note: Sauteing comes under shallow frying, the term comes from the French word.
Medium of liquids (Moist heat cooking)
Moist heat cooking relies on the presence of liquid or steam to cook food. The foods that are cooked by this method are usually healthy.

6. Boiling

Boiling is a cooking method in which food should be in a pan of liquids, which must be kept boiling all the time, quite of bubbles should be seen on the surface. The boiling temperature is 100. c (212. F)

7. Poaching

Poaching is a cooking method in which food is gently cooked in water that is just below boiling point (93 C-95.C). Vinegar and salt are used in liquids, it helps in quicker coagulation and prevents disintegration.

8. Steaming

Steaming is a cooking method that is done by moist heat.
There are two types of steaming indirect steaming and direct steaming.

A) Indirect steaming

Here steaming is done when the food is placed in a closed pan, which is surrounded by plenty of steam from fast boiling water or in a steamer.

B) Direct steaming

It is done on a covered plate over a saucepan of water.

9. Stewing

It is a time-consuming method of cooking, but the advantage is that the coarser, older, and cheaper types of poultry and meat are used as they are unsuitable for grilling and roasting.
Stewing is done in a small quantity of water, and stock until the cut food items are tender and both liquid and food are served together. It is done in a covered saucepan or casserole.

10. Braising

It is a combined method of roasting and stewing. The pan with a light fitting lid or casserole, is done to prevent evaporation so that the food re its juices together with the article added for flavoring. Bacon, ham, vegetables, and herbs are added.
The meat is first browned with a small amount of hot fat to seal the pores of the meat. It is then placed on a bed of root vegetables. Stock or demi-glace is added to two-thirds of the meat.
Note: For making white braising we use white stock and for brown braising we use brown stock.

Methods of cooking PDF

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